Instrumentos de regulación para la protección del medio ambiente. Implantación de las últimas directivas europeas en España

Joaquín Cañón de Francia


La regulación medioambiental es el mecanismo más eficaz para que las empresas internalicen los efectos de su actividad productiva sobre el entorno natural. Sin embargo, el cumplimiento con límites y estándares de contaminación exige de las empresas procesos de adaptación que son en sí mismos costosos, ya que afectan a los beneficios futuros en la medida en la que modifican sistemas y métodos de producción. En Europa, las nuevas directivas que han entrado en vigor (la directiva IPPC y la de derechos de emisiones contaminantes para cumplir con el Protocolo de Kyoto), exigen de los países miembros un gran esfuerzo en la reducción de emisiones. En este contexto, el estudio de las características de los nuevos instrumentos que faciliten una adaptación menos traumática para las empresas adquiere plena relevancia.

Palabras clave

Command-and-control; market-based; coste efectividad; IPPC; EPER; Derechos de emisión.

Texto completo:



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